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Citation Styles: APA

This guide will help you cite your sources in your papers and projects!

What's New?

Did you know that the American Psychological Association (APA) recently updated from the 6th to the 7th edition in 2019? To learn about the differences and how this may affect your work at ECU, check out What's New in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.

Official Manuals and Guides

Formatting Requirements

Follow these guidelines for formatting your references page. 

  • The word "References" should appear at the top center of the page, in bold.
  • The references list must be alphabetical by author last name.
  • All citations must be double spaced.
  • The second line and all subsequent lines of a citation must be indented one-half inch.
  • You should only capitalize the first word of the title, first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns

APA Style Help

Need more help with APA Style? Check out the following resources.

APA Templates

Quick Guide to APA References Page

Books

Type Citation

Template

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for the    subtitle. Publisher.
Single Author Example
 
 
 
 
Brown, E. (2013). Comedy and the feminine middlebrow novel. Pickering & Chatto.

 

    Note: For no author, begin the citation with the title of the work, followed by the year of publication.

 

Multiple Authors Example

 

 

 

Multiple authors (21 or more) can be separated by a comma followed by the ampersand symbol (&)

    Nguyen, T., Carnevale, J.J., Scholer, A.A., Miele, D.B., & Fujita, K.

For 21 or more authors, include the first 20 authors' names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author's name (do not place an ampersand before it).

    Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G.,...Bostros, N. 

Single Essay in an Edited Book Example

 

 

 

 

Template:

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor's first initial. 
Editor's last name (Ed.), Title of book (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.

 

Example:
Smith, P. M. (2006). The diverse librarian. In E. Connor (Ed.), An introduction to reference services in academic libraries (pp. 137-140). Haworth Press.


 

Articles

  Journal Citation
Template

 

 

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (year of publication). Article title. Journal TitleVolume number(Issue number), page range. DOI.

 

Print Example

 

Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: A pedagogical perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education33(5), 507-516.

 

Electronic Example

 

For online periodicals, the format is the same as print except that you add the DOI at the end. If the document does not have a DOI (digital object identifier), include a URL link.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.225

 

Smith, E. (2011). Abelard and Heloise: Why data and publications belong together. D-Lib Magazine, 17(1/2). 
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january11/smit/01smit.html

 

  Newspaper Citation
Template

 

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Publication year, Month date). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. page number(s).

 

Note: If the page is not inclusive, give all page numbers, separating them with commas.

Print Example

 

 

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

 

Electronic Example

 

For online newspaper articles, the format is the same as print except that you add the DOI at the end. If the article does not have a DOI (digital object identifier), include the newspaper's main URL link.

 

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com

 

  Magazine Citation
Template

 

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Publication year, Month date). Article title. Magazine Titlevolume number(issue number), page range.

Print Example

 

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

 

Electronic Example

 

For online magazine articles, the format is the same as print except that you add the DOI at the end. If the article does not have a DOI (digital object identifier), include the magazine's main URL. Note that there is not a period at the end of the URL or the doi. 

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology39(6).       http://www.apa.org/monitor/

 

 

Web pages

Type Citation
Template
 
 
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Publication year, Month date). Title of webpage. Site name. URL

 

Example
 
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://human parts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist- 3af27e312d01 

Note: If the publication date is not provided, write "n.d." for "no date."

 

 

Personal Communications

Type Citation
Template
Interviewee (personal communication, Month and date, year)
Example
 
 
(T. Nguyen, personal communication, August 8, 2019)

Note: Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communications are not included in the reference list; they are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible

Quick Guide to APA In-Text Citations

In addition to providing full citations in your references list, you also need to provide brief in-text citations every time you quote, paraphrase, or summarize someone else's work.

In this style, you must mention the author's name and the year of publication in either the text of the sentence or in parentheses at the end of the quotation, paraphrase, or summary. You should place the page number(s) you are referencing in parentheses at the end of the quotation.

For example:

Tilley (2001) describes the process of apprenticeship as "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice" (p. 205).

OR

She stated, "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice", is the best process for effective apprenticeship. (Tilley, 2001, p. 205)

OR

In her seminal 2001 publication, Tilley describes the process of apprenticeship as "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice" (p. 205).

When there are no page numbers, or when you are discussing the entirety of a work, use only the author's name and the date of publication in the in-text citation.