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Citation Styles: APA

This guide will help you cite your sources in your papers and projects!

Official Manuals and Guides

Formatting Requirements

Follow these guidelines for formatting your references page. 

  • The word "References" should appear at the top center of the page, in bold.
  • The references list must be alphabetical by author last name.
  • All citations must be double spaced.
  • The second line and all subsequent lines of a citation must be indented one-half inch.

APA Style Help

Need more help with APA Style? Check out the following resources.

APA Templates

Quick Guide to APA References Page

Books

Type Citation

Template

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.
Single Author Example
 
 
 
 
Brown, E. (2013). Comedy and the feminine middlebrow novel. Pickering & Chatto.

 

Note: For no author, begin the citation with the title of the work, followed by the year of publication.

 

Multiple Authors Example

 

 

 

Multiple authors (up to 20) can be separated by a comma followed by the ampersand symbol (&).

Nguyen, T., Carnevale, J.J., Scholer, A.A., Miele, D.B., & Fujita, K.

For 20 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author's name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G.,...Bostros, N. 
Single Essay in an Edited Book Example

 

 

 

 

Template:

Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor's first initial. Editor's last name (Ed.), Title of book (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.

 

Example:

Smith, P. M. (2006). The diverse librarian. In E. Connor (Ed.), An introduction to reference services in academic libraries (pp. 137-140). Haworth Press.


 

Articles

Type Journal Citation Newspaper Citation Magazine Citation
Template
 
 
 
 
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume number(Issue number), page range. DOI.

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Publication year, Month date). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. page number(s).

 

Note: If the page is not inclusive, give all page numbers, separating them with commas.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Publication year, Month date). Article title. Magazine Title, volume number(issue number), page range.
Print Example
Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: A pedagogical perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 507-516.
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Electronic Example

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For online periodicals, the format is the same as print except that you add the DOI at the end. If the document does not have a DOI (digital object identifier), include a URL link.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.225

 

Smit, E. (2011). Abelard and Heloise: Why data and publications belong together. D-Lib Magazine, 17(1/2). 
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january11/smit/01smit.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For online newspaper articles, the format is the same as print except that you add the DOI at the end. If the article does not have a DOI (digital object identifier), include the newspaper's main URL link.

 

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For online magazine articles, the format is the same as print except that you add the DOI at the end. If the article does not have a DOI (digital object identifier), include the magazine's main URL. Note that there is not a period at the end of the URL or the doi. 

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). http://www.apa.org/monitor/

 

 

 

Web pages

Type Citation
Template
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Publication year, Month date). Title of webpage. Site name. URL
Example
 
 
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://human parts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01 

Note: If the publication date is not provided, write "n.d." for "no date."

 

Quick Guide to APA In-Text Citations

In addition to providing full citations in your references list, you also need to provide brief in-text citations every time you quote, paraphrase, or summarize someone else's work.

In this style, you must mention the author's name and the year of publication in either the text of the sentence or in parentheses at the end of the quotation, paraphrase, or summary. You should place the page number(s) you are referencing in parentheses at the end of the quotation.

For example:

Tilley (2001) describes the process of apprenticeship as "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice" (p. 205).

OR

She stated, "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice", is the best process for effective apprenticeship. (Tilley, 2001, p. 205)

OR

In her seminal 2001 publication, Tilley describes the process of apprenticeship as "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice" (p. 205).

When there are no page numbers, or when you are discussing the entirety of a work, use only the author's name and the date of publication in the in-text citation.